ELLIPT2D: a general 2D elliptic equation solver Release: Mon Jul 3 08:57:36 EDT 2006 
ContentsExamples Documentation Gallery Download file 
Ellipt2d is a general purpose, finiteelement tool implemented primarily in Python for solving twodimensional elliptic equations. Software aims and capabilities:
Requirements:
Useful linksOfficial Python web siteTriangle OpenDX Other Finite element toolsA 2D finite element program using a simple scripting language called Gfem.Diffpack, a full 3D finite element package. 
Comments to authors: J. C Mollis, A. Pletzer
Introduction
Welcome to the Impact Finite Element Program.
This program was designed to be a free and SIMPLE alternative to the advanced commercial Finite Element codes available today. The guideline during the development of the program has been to keep things clear and simple in design. Impact has been designed to be easily extendible and modular to enable programmers a way to easy add features to the program without having to enter other parts of the code. Impact has been written in Java. This choice of language may seem strange at first, but with the recent development of Java engines, speed penalty is not that significant. On the other hand, the Object Oriented features and the high portability of Java is a clear advantage for the future. Impact is a Finite Element Code which is based on an Explicit Time stepping algorithm. These kind of codes are used to simulate dynamic phenomena such as car crashes and similar, usually involving large deformations. There are quite few explicit codes around which might seem strange since the other cousin (implicit finite element) are quite common. The implicit codes are used to simulate static loads in structures. Something that explicit codes does not manage very well. 

Impact is written in Java
Impact is written in Java for two reasons:
1. Java is an Object Oriented language and that suits Finite Element Programming perfectly
2. Java is clean, simple and extremely portable.
On the other hand, Java might seem like a strange choice since
this is a high performance number crunching type of software and Java
is not known to be competitive to ex. Fortran or C++ in this area.
True, it is slower but with the new interpreters from IBM and Sun, the
built in runtime compiling actually gets the speed up quite a bit so
this is not such an issue after all.
Jonas Forssell    Development 
Yuriy Mikhaylovskiy    Development 
Nikolay Skiba    Development 
Galina Golovko    Development 
Bernhard Haumacher    Parallellisation 
Claus Wonnemann    Parallellisation 
Ruediger Heim    Interface development 1:st generation 
Kjell Mattisson    Scientific advisor 
Application
At the moment, Impact can only handle dynamic INCOMPRESSIBLE problems. Examples of problems with this kind of limitation is basically most real world dynamic problems. The following is a list of problems that Impact will be able to solve in the future.
 Collisions of any type
 Forming operations
 Dynamic events such as chassis movement etc.
Theoretical base
The explicit code is based on the simple formula of F=M*A where F represents a force, M is the mass of a body and A is the resulting acceleration of that body.
All the code does is to calculate the acceleration for the body, use a small step in time to translate this acceleration into a little displacement of the body. This displacement is then used to calculate a responding force since the body is elastic and can be stretched (thus creating a reaction force). This force is then used to calculate an acceleration and then the process is repeated again from the beginning.
As long as the timestep is sufficiently small, the results are accurate.
Literature of Interest
There are a large number of books available on Finite Element Theory. Most of them describe Finite Element from a static point of view and is therefore of limited interest to the potential Impact programmer.
On the other hand, the theory of element formulation is often usable to a large extent and having that in mind, here are a few proposals:
 Concepts And Applications Of Finite Element Analysis, Third edition  Robert D. Cook, David S. Malkus, Michael E. Plesha, ISBN 0471847887
 The Finite Element Method  Linear Static and Dynamic Finite Element Analysis  Thomas J. R. Hughes, ISBN 0484411818
 Nonlinear Finite Elements for Continua and Structures  Ted Belytschko, Wing Kam Liu, Brian Moran. ISBN 0471987735
The first book is recommended to beginners and engineers in general since it deals with most issues from a linear algebra perspective. This makes the code writing quite close to the Impact format. It is also a very good book and the one I have had best feedback from.
Ted Belytschko's book is the "bible" in this field. The man behind explicit codes have finally written a compendium on the theory and some principle algorithms are also shown. However, for an engineers perspective, this book is quite deep in its places and is more suitable as a reference than as a learning book for beginners.
There are also some papers written which are of interest:
 Explicit Algorithms For The Nonlinear Dynamics Of Shells  Ted Belytchko, Jerry I. Lin, ChenShyh Tsay, Computer methods in applied mechanics and engineering 42 (1984), page 225251
 An Explicit Formulation For An Efficient Triangular PlateBending Element  JeanLouis Batoz, International journal for numerical methods in engineering, Vol. 18, page 10771089 (1982)
These papers form the basis of coming shell element extension to Impact.
To understand the concept behind object orientation, inheritance etc, the following book is a pleasure to read:
 Thinking in Java  Burce Eckel, ISBN 0130273635; The book is also available for free download at: http://www.bruceeckel.com
Installation
Impact is a Java program which means that there is no compilation of sourcecode or similar to be done. However, there are some programs you need to install to be able to run Impact and to see the results.
Start by downloading the program files of impact from http://sourceforge.net/projects/impact
The file is a ImpactXXXX.zip file and must be untarred using the command tar xvf ImpactXXXX.zip if you are running Linux. For Windows users the Winzip program will handle the expansion.
Prerequisites
To get Impact working you need:
 A Java engine  Java SE Runtime Environment (JRE) or Java SE Development Kit(JDK) http://java.sun.com/javase/downloads/index.jsp
 A Java3D https://java3d.dev.java.net/binarybuilds.html
 After installation for program start the package file ImpactGUI_OGL_XXXXX.bat (.sh), where instead of XXXXX choose a file which corresponds to your operating system is used.
A good Java engine is the Sun version which can be found at http://java.sun.com/javase/downloads/index.jsp. You can take either the Runtime environment or the Software Development Kit.
There are several alternative Java engines.
After installation, you can run the solver by going to the processor tab (assuming you have started impact GUI and then loading in one of the examples from the examples directory. Solution is then started by pressing the play button.
Impact will now create two outdatafiles:
 xxxxx.in.flavia.res
 xxxxx.in.flavia.msh
These files can be read by the internal postprocessor or alternatively by GID preprocessor and postprocessor. Make sure to always select the .res file when viewing the results.



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Contour Diagram Plotter and 3D Function Grapher Applets Combined
Description
Back to Multivariable Calculus Mathlets Back to Mathlets Home
It has been developed with partial funding from the National Science Foundation and the Mathematical Association of America.
www.flashandmath.com 
www.flashandmath.com 
www.flashandmath.com 
www.flashandmath.com 
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This work was supported in part by the National Science Foundation under grant DUE0535327. 
www.flashandmath.com 
Contents
We present an applet that combines a contour diagram plotter and a 3D function grapher, and allows the user to toggle between the two. Since both contour maps and 3D graphs are very sensitive to the choice of x and y ranges, it is often very hard to interpret a contour diagram without seeing the corresponding 3D graph. This applet provides an opportunity to compare these two ways of visualizing functions of two variables. Click either of the images below to open the applet.
The image above shows the contour map part, the one below the 3D grapher part.
In the applet, the user can enter a formula for a function f(x,y), x and y ranges and see the corresponding contour diagram. The 3D grapher part draws the 3D graph of a userdefined function f(x,y), in the userdefined x and y ranges. The 3D graph can be rotated in real time. The possibility of comparing the two ways of visualizing functions of two variables gives the applet its pedagogical value.
Note: The applet is written in ActionScript 3 and requires several of our custom AS3 classes. The complete source code for the applet is available in the AS3 developers section of Flash and Math at: Contour Map Plotter and 3D Function Grapher in Flash Combined.